Beer Aboard Ship in the Greenland Whale Fishery

In a chapter headed ‘The Decanter’ in Moby Dick Ishmael the narrator describes an ‘ancient volume’ detailing ‘the larders and cellars of 180 sail of Dutch whalemen’. He is struck by the volume of beer and gin taken on board (an ‘anker’ is roughly 35 litres):

The quantity of beer, too, is very large, 10,800 barrels. Now, as those polar fisheries could only be prosecuted in the short summer of that climate, so that the whole cruise of one of these Dutch whalemen, including the short voyage to and from the Spitzbergen sea, did not much exceed three months, say, and reckoning 30 men to each of their fleet of 180 sail, we have 5,400 Low Dutch seamen in all; therefore, I say, we have precisely two barrels of beer per man, for a twelve weeks’ allowance, exclusive of his fair proportion of that 550 ankers of gin.

Three centuries later, when Melville’s notional drunken Dutch whalers had been replaced in the fishery by the English, nineteenth century whale ships heading for Greenland would leave their home ports–Whitby, Hull, Liverpool,  Peterhead–in March and return in August with the catch. They often called in at Stromness on Orkney, or at the Shetlands, to pick up crew, but they would be at sea for most of the five or six months they were away. The amount of beer they took with them was significant. In February 1815 whaling captain William Scoresby Jr. was preparing the ship Esk for its voyage from Whitby to the Greenland fishery. His journal* for that year records that besides nine tons of meat, and five of bread the ship took on 11 casks (probably 160 gallons each) of beer ‘from Mr. Stonehouse’ and 10 casks, containing ‘five tons of beer from Clarks’. Stonehouse and Clark later delivered a further four barrels each (36 gallons per barrel) of beer and T. Fishburn Esq provided a cask of fine ale, ‘to be distributed to the crew in the progress of he fishery, if favoured with success’. To supplement this the ship also took on 3300 gallons of fresh water in 11 casks. Assuming Scoresby’s casks were 160 gallons each it seems the Esk sailed with an allowance of around three and a half pints of beer per man per day; more than enough to ward off scurvy, or so they thought, mistakenly.

I’m curious too about what kind of beer this would be. No doubt it was relatively strong by today’s standards, but there is clearly a distinction in quality here between the ‘beer’ taken on board in quantity as a nutritional substitute for water, and the ‘fine ale’ provided as a reward. There is a clue to the quality of the seamen’s supply in Scoresby’s journal for 1814, in which he details his own bottled supplies. Not for him beer from the common cask:

Wednesday 16th March [1814]. … Received from Gile and Brown stock of spirits for Harbour & Sea use, also 10 Dozn. Bottles of Porter: & from [Pierson?] & Frankland 5 Dozn. Port; 1 1/5 Dozn. Sherry & 1 Dozn. of Vidonia Wine. Completing my Sea & Harbour Stock of Wines, Spirits, & Porter.

In later life Scoresby was concerned about with the amount of alcohol sailors consumed and with the number of shipwrecks that seemed to have been caused by drunkenness among the officers and crew. It would continue to be a problem until fresh water supplies improved.

*The Arctic Whaling Journals of William Scoresby the Younger Vol 2: The Voyages of 1814, 1815, and 1816. Edited by C. Ian Jackson. London: Ashgate, for the Hakluyt Society, 2008.

Advertisements

4 Comments on “Beer Aboard Ship in the Greenland Whale Fishery”

  1. ian goulson says:

    Dear Chris,

    I was fascinated to learn about your book on the history of the Cain family and brewing in Liverpool. I am one of the great great great grandsons of Robert Cain. I also saw an e-mail from Herbert Morley Cain whom I believe to be a long lost cousin but unfortunately I was unable to reply. My maternal grandmother was born Yvonne Hilda Cain and her mother was Hilda Rose Belford married to Alexandra Bertram Cain. ABC was the grandson of Robert James and great grandson of Robert Cain. My grandmother was born in Jersey as I believe that ABC moved here after meeting Hilda and they became successful tobaccanists. I and my brother to this day wear with pride the Cain signet ring which is a demi stag and the motto “Pacem Amo”.

    I would be most interested to get in touch and learn what else you have discovered about my family. I have ordered the book.

    Kind regards,

    Ian Goulson

    • Chris says:

      Hello Ian

      Sorry for the slow reply and thanks for ordering the book–I hope you enjoy it.

      The Robert James strand of the Cain family is something of a mystery; RJC himself lived on Jersey so that may be where that connection comes from. I did come across some information about RJC while researching the book, but you will understand he was not my main focus. He was quite a character by all accounts; the black sheep of the family and probably also quite eccentric, but no fool. By all means use the contact form to get in touch directly if there’s anything specific I might be able to help with. I was in touch with some RJC descendents so you never know.

  2. HERBERT MORLEY CAIN says:

    Hello Ian

    I do believe we could be cousins for I am both related to Robert Cain Brewer Liverpool and my Grandmothers family from Jersey who were potato merchants(or so I believe)
    I would love to hear from you.
    Herbert Cain

  3. […] took them into waters uncharted even by the Royal Navy, large quantities were what they took. I’ve written before about the amount of beer taken by whaleship Esk, on its summer voyage to the Arctic in 1814: […]